apt-get (在已安装的软件包上安装,删除和执行其他操作)

rose1 发表于 2020-08-06 11:06
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在使用APT软件包管理系统的Linux操作系统上,apt-get命令用于在已安装的软件包上安装,删除和执行其他操作。 在Debian,Ubuntu和Linux Mint操作系统中,默认情况下可使用apt-get命令和其他核心APT实用程序。

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目录

1 apt-get 运行系统环境

2 apt-get 语法

3 apt-get 例子

apt-get 运行系统环境

Linux

apt-get 语法

apt-get [-asqdyfmubV] [-o=config_string] [-c=config_file] [-t=target_release]
        [-a=architecture] {update | upgrade | dselect-upgrade | dist-upgrade |
        install pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        remove pkg... | purge pkg... |
        source pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        build-dep pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        download pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        check | clean | autoclean | autoremove | {-v | --version} |
        {-h | --help}}

指令

更新

重新同步软件包文件的本地索引,更新有关可用的新软件包和更新软件包的信息。索引是从/etc/apt/sources.list中指定的位置获取的。

应始终在升级或dist-upgrade之前执行更新。

升级

使用/etc/apt/sources.list中的源安装系统上当前安装的所有软件包的最新版本。如果当前安装了软件包并且有新版本可用,则将对其进行检索和升级。在任何情况下都不会删除已安装的软件包,也不会检索尚未安装的软件包。当前安装的软件包的新版本,如果不更改其他软件包的安装状态而无法升级,将保留其当前版本。

应该始终首先执行更新,以便apt-get知道哪些新版本的软件包可用。

远程升级

除了执行升级功能外,dist-upgrade还可以智能地处理新版本软件包的依赖关系。 apt-get具有一个“智能”冲突解决系统,它将在必要时尝试以不重要的软件包为代价来升级最重要的软件包。

因此,dist-upgrade命令可能会删除某些软件包。

/etc/apt/sources.list文件包含将从中检索软件包文件的位置列表。另请参阅apt_preferences,以了解将覆盖单个软件包的常规设置的机制。

dselect升级

与传统的Debian包装前端dselect结合使用。 dselect-upgrade遵循dselect对可用软件包的“状态”字段所做的更改,并执行实现该状态所需的操作(例如,删除旧软件包和安装新软件包)。

安装

install安装一个或多个安装或升级所需的软件包。软件包是由其软件包名称而不是完全限定的文件名指定的(例如,在Debian系统中,“ apt-utils”将是所提供的参数,而不是“ apt-utils_0.9.7.7ubuntu4_amd64.deb”)。指定安装的软件包所需的所有软件包也将被检索并安装。 /etc/apt/sources.list文件用于找到所需的软件包。

如果在软件包名称后附加了连字符(中间没有空格),则已标识的软件包将被删除(如果已安装)。类似地,可以使用加号指定要安装的软件包。这些注释功能可用于替代apt-get的默认冲突解决系统做出的决策。

可以通过在软件包名称后面加上等号和要选择的软件包版本来选择特定版本的软件包进行安装。这将导致找到并安装该特定版本。或者,可以通过在软件包名称后加上斜杠和发行版本或存档名称(“稳定”,“测试”,“不稳定”)来选择特定发行版。

两种版本选择机制都可以降级软件包,因此必须谨慎使用。您不想手动删除另一个已安装软件包所依赖的软件包。

如果没有包与给定的表达式匹配,并且该表达式包含“。”,“?”之一或'*',则假定它是POSIX样式的正则表达式,并将其应用于数据库中的所有包名称。然后安装(或删除)所有匹配项。 (请注意,匹配是通过子字符串完成的;因此,“ lo。*”既匹配“ how-lo”又匹配“最低”。如果不希望这样做,请使用“ ^”或“ $”字符锚定正则表达式,或创建一个更具体的正则表达式。

去掉

与安装相同,只不过软件包被删除而不是安装。请注意,删除软件包会将其配置文件保留在系统上。如果软件包名称后加了一个加号(没有空格),则将安装而不是删除已标识的软件包。

清除

除删除和清除软件包(删除所有配置文件)外,其他与删除相同。

资源

使apt-get获取源包。 APT将检查可用的软件包,以确定要提取的源软件包。然后,它将遵循默认发行版,找到该源程序包的最新版本并将其下载到当前目录中,该默认版本是通过选项APT :: Default-Release,-t选项或使用pkg / release语法的每个程序包设置的。

通过sources.list文件中的deb-src行与二进制程序包分开跟踪源程序包

如果指定了--compile选项,则使用--host-architecture选项定义的体系结构,将使用dpkg-buildpackage将软件包编译为二进制.deb。如果指定了--download-only,则不会解压缩源软件包。

可以通过以下方式检索特定的源版本:将源名称后跟一个等号,然后将其提取,以类似于软件包文件所使用的机制。这将使源软件包名称和版本完全匹配,从而隐式启用APT :: Get :: Only-Source选项。

请注意,源代码包不会像二进制包一样在dpkg数据库中安装和跟踪。它们被下载到当前目录,例如源tarball。

建立深度

导致apt-get安装/删除软件包,以尝试满足源软件包的构建依赖关系。默认情况下,满足依赖关系才能原生构建程序包。如果需要,可以使用--host-architecture选项指定主机体系结构。

检查

诊断工具;它更新程序包缓存并检查是否有损坏的依赖项。

下载

将给定的二进制软件包下载到当前目录。

清洁

清除检索到的软件包文件的本地存储库。它从/ var / cache / apt / archives // var / cache / apt / archives / partial /中除去锁定文件。当APT用作dselect方法时,clean将自动运行。如果您不使用dselect,则可能会不时运行apt-get clean以释放磁盘空间。

自动清洁

clean一样,autoclean会清除本地本地存储库中检索到的软件包文件。不同之处在于,它仅删除不再下载的软件包文件,因为它们几乎没有用。这使得高速缓存可以长期保持,而不会失去控制。如果将配置选项APT :: Clean-Installed设置为off,它将防止擦除已安装的软件包。

自动删除

autoremove用于删除为满足其他软件包的依赖性而自动安装的软件包,现在不再需要它们。

变更日志

下载软件包变更日志并通过sensible-pager显示。服务器名称和基本目录在APT :: Changelogs :: Server变量中定义。默认情况下,它显示已安装版本的变更日志。但是,您可以指定与install命令相同的选项。

选件

可以使用配置文件来设置所有命令行选项。这些说明指示要设置的配置选项。对于布尔选项,您可以使用-f-,-no-f-f = no之类的选项覆盖配置文件。

--no-install-recommends

不要将推荐的软件包视为安装的依赖项。

配置项:APT :: Install-Recommends。

-安装建议

将建议的软件包视为安装的依赖项。

配置项:APT :: Install-Suggests。

-d--download-only

仅下载;仅检索软件包文件,不解压缩或安装软件包文件。

配置项:APT :: Get ::仅下载。

-f--fix-broken

固定;尝试更正依赖项已损坏的系统。与安装/删除一起使用时,此选项可以省略任何软件包,以允许APT推断出可能的解决方案。如果指定了软件包,则必须完全纠正问题。首次运行APT时,有时需要使用该选项。 APT本身不允许破坏的软件包依赖关系存在于系统上。系统的依赖关系结构可能会损坏到需要手动干预的程度(通常意味着使用dselectdpkg --remove来消除某些有问题的软件包)。在某些情况下,将此选项与-m一起使用可能会产生错误。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Fix-Broken。

-m--ignore-missing,
--fix-missing

忽略缺少的包裹;如果无法检索软件包或在检索后(完整性损坏的软件包文件)无法通过完整性检查,请保留这些软件包并处理结果。在某些情况下,将此选项与-f一起使用可能会产生错误。如果选择了要安装的软件包(尤其是在命令行中提到的软件包)并且无法下载,那么它将被静默保留。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Fix-Missing。

--no-download

禁止下载软件包。最好与--ignore-missing一起使用,以强制APT仅使用它已经下载的.debs。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Download。

-q--quiet

安静; 产生适合记录的输出,省略进度指示器。更多的q将产生最多2 的安静程度。您也可以使用-q =#设置安静级别,从而覆盖配置文件。注意,安静级别2意味着-y如果没有APT可能会决定执行您未曾期望的操作,则绝对不应使用-qq而不使用诸如-d,-- print-uris-s之类的无动作修饰符。

配置项:quiet。

-s--simulate,
--just-print--dry-run,
--recon--no-act

不采取行动;对可能发生但实际上不会更改系统的事件进行模拟。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Simulate。

以用户身份执行的模拟运行将自动停用锁定(Debug :: NoLocking),如果设置了选项APT :: Get :: Show-User-Simulation-Note(默认情况下),也会显示一条通知,指示那只是一个模拟。以root身份执行的运行不会触发NoLocking或通知。超级用户应该知道自己在做什么,而无需apt-get发出进一步警告。

模拟运行打印出一系列行,每行代表一个dpkg操作:配置(Conf),删除(Remv)或解包(Inst)。方括号表示包装破损,空方括号表示无意义的折断,这种情况很少发生。

-y--yes--assume-yes

对提示自动是;假设对所有提示都回答“是”,并且非交互式运行。如果发生不良情况,例如更改保留的软件包,尝试安装未经身份验证的软件包或删除基本软件包,则apt-get将中止。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Assume-Yes。

--assume-no

所有提示自动“否”。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Assume-No。

-u--show-upgraded

显示升级的软件包;打印出所有要升级的软件包的列表。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Show-Upgraded。

-V--verbose-versions

显示已升级和已安装软件包的完整版本。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Show-Versions。

-a--host-architecture

此选项控制由apt-get source --compile构建的体系结构软件包以及如何满足交叉构建依赖性。默认情况下,未设置它意味着主机体系结构与构建体系结构相同(由APT :: Architecture定义)

配置项:APT :: Get :: Host-Architecture。

-b--compile--build

下载后编译源程序包。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Compile。

--ignore-hold

忽略包裹搁置;这会导致apt-get忽略放置在软件包上的保留。与dist-upgrade结合使用以覆盖大量不希望的保留可能很有用。

配置项:APT :: Ignore-Hold。

--no-upgrade

不要升级软件包;当与install结合使用时,no-upgrade将阻止升级命令行上的软件包(如果已安装)。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Upgrade。

--only-upgrade

不要安装新软件包;与install结合使用时,only-upgrade将仅安装已安装软件包的升级,而忽略安装新软件包的请求。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Only-Upgrade。

--force-yes

强制是;这是一个危险的选择,如果不执行潜在的有害操作,将导致易于继续运行。除非在非常特殊的情况下,否则不应使用它。强行使用可能会破坏您的系统!

配置项:APT :: Get :: force-yes。

--print-uris

无需获取要安装的文件,而是打印其URI。每个URI将具有路径,目标文件名,大小和预期的MD5哈希值。请注意,要写入的文件名并不总是与远程站点上的文件名匹配!这也适用于source和update命令。与update命令一起使用时,不包括MD5和大小,并且用户可以解压缩所有压缩文件。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Print-URIs。

- 清除

使用清除而不是删除来删除将要删除的任何内容。在计划清除的软件包旁边将显示一个星号(“ *”)。remove --purge等效于purge命令。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Purge。

-重新安装

重新安装已经安装的最新版本的软件包。

配置项:APT :: Get :: ReInstall。

-列表清理

默认情况下,此选项处于启用状态。使用--no-list-cleanup将其关闭。启用该选项后,apt-get将自动管理/ var / lib / apt / lists的内容,以确保删除过时的文件。禁用它的唯一原因是您经常更改源列表。

配置项:APT :: Get :: List-Cleanup。

-t--target-release,
--default-release

此选项控制对策略引擎的默认输入。它使用指定的释放字符串在优先级990处创建默认引脚。这将覆盖/ etc / apt / preferences中的常规设置。专门固定的软件包不受此选项的值影响。简而言之,该选项使您可以控制要检索的分发程序包。一些常见的示例可能是-t'2.1 *',- t不稳定或-t sid。

配置项:APT :: Default-Release。

--trivial-only

仅执行“琐碎”的操作。从逻辑上讲,这可以被认为与--assume-yes有关;其中--assume-yes将对任何提示回答是,-- trivial-only将回答否。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Trivial-Only。

--no-remove

如果要删除任何软件包,apt-get会立即中止而不提示。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Remove。

--auto-remove

如果命令是installremove,那么此选项的作用类似于运行autoremove命令,删除未使用的依赖项软件包。

配置项:APT :: Get :: AutomaticRemove。

--only-source

仅对sourcebuild-dep命令有意义。指示将不通过二进制表映射给定的源名称。这意味着,如果指定此选项,则这些命令将仅接受源程序包名称作为参数,而不接受二进制程序包名称并查找相应的源程序包。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Only-Source。

--diff-only--dsc-only,
--tar-only

仅下载源存档的diff,dsc或tar文件。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Diff-Only,APT :: Get :: Dsc-Only和APT :: Get :: Tar-Only。

--arch-only

仅依赖于流程体系结构的构建依赖关系。

配置项:APT :: Get :: Arch-Only。

--allow-unauthenticated

忽略是否无法对软件包进行身份验证,也不会提示您。这对于pbuilder之类的工具很有用。

配置项:APT :: Get :: AllowUnauthenticated。

-h--help

显示简短的使用摘要。

-v--version

显示程序版本。

-c--config-file

配置文件;指定要使用的配置文件。该程序将读取默认配置文件,然后读取此配置文件。如果需要在解析默认配置文件之前设置配置设置,请使用APT_CONFIG环境变量指定一个文件。有关语法信息,请参见apt.conf。

-o--option

设置配置选项;这将设置一个任意配置选项。语法为-o Foo :: Bar = bar。-o和--option可以多次使用以设置不同的选项。

档案

/etc/apt/sources.list

获取软件包的位置。

配置项:Dir :: Etc :: SourceList。

/etc/apt/sources.list.d/

用于获取软件包位置的文件片段。

配置项:Dir :: Etc :: SourceParts。

/etc/apt/apt.conf

APT配置文件。

配置项:Dir :: Etc :: Main。

/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/

APT配置文件片段。

配置项:Dir :: Etc :: Parts。

/etc/apt/preferences

版本首选项文件。您可以在此处指定“固定”,即从其他来源或发行版的不同版本中获取某些软件包的首选项。

配置项:Dir :: Etc :: Preferences。

/etc/apt/preferences.d/

版本首选项的文件片段。

配置项:Dir :: Etc :: PreferencesParts。

/var/cache/apt/archives/

检索到的软件包文件的存储区域。

配置项:Dir :: Cache :: Archives。

/var/cache/apt/archives/partial/

打包文件在传输中的存储区。

配置项:Dir :: Cache :: Archives(部分内容将隐式附加)

/var/lib/apt/lists/

sources.list中指定的每个包资源的状态信息存储区。    

配置项:Dir :: State :: Lists。

/var/lib/apt/lists/partial/

状态信息的存储区域。    

配置项:Dir :: State :: Lists(部分内容将隐式附加)

apt-get [-asqdyfmubV] [-o=config_string] [-c=config_file] [-t=target_release]
        [-a=architecture] {update | upgrade | dselect-upgrade | dist-upgrade |
        install pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        remove pkg... | purge pkg... |
        source pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        build-dep pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        download pkg [{=pkg_version_number | /target_release}]... |
        check | clean | autoclean | autoremove | {-v | --version} |
        {-h | --help}}

Commands

update

resynchronizes the local index of packages files, updating information about new and updated packages that are available. The indexes are fetched from the location(s) specified in /etc/apt/sources.list.

An update should always be performed before an upgrade or dist-upgrade.

upgrade

installs the newest versions of all packages currently installed on the system, using the sources in /etc/apt/sources.list. If a package is currently installed and a new version is available, it is retrieved and upgraded. Under no circumstances are installed packages removed, or packages not already installed retrieved. New versions of currently installed packages that cannot be upgraded without changing the install status of another package will be left at their current version.

An update should always be performed first so that apt-get knows which new versions of packages are available.

dist-upgrade

in addition to performing the function of upgrade, dist-upgrade also intelligently handles changing dependencies with new versions of packages; apt-get has a "smart" conflict resolution system, and it will attempt to upgrade the most important packages at the expense of less important ones if necessary.

The dist-upgrade command may therefore remove some packages.

The /etc/apt/sources.list file contains the list of locations from where package files will be retrieved. See also apt_preferences for a mechanism that will override the general settings for individual packages.

dselect-upgrade

used in conjunction with the traditional Debian packaging front-end, dselectdselect-upgrade follows the changes made by dselect to the Status field of available packages, and performs the actions necessary to achieve that state (for instance, the removal of old and the installation of new packages).

install

install installs one or more packages desired for installation or upgrading. Packages are specified by their package name, not a fully qualified file name (for instance, in a Debian system, "apt-utils" would be the argument provided, not "apt-utils_0.9.7.7ubuntu4_amd64.deb"). All packages required by the package(s) specified for installation will also be retrieved and installed. The /etc/apt/sources.list file is used to locate the desired packages.

If a hyphen is appended to the package name (with no intervening space), the identified package will be removed if it is installed. Similarly a plus sign can be used to designate a package to install. These annotation features may be used to override decisions made by apt-get's default conflict resolution system.

A specific version of a package can be selected for installation by following the package name with an equals and the version of the package to select. This will cause that specific version to be located and installed. Alternatively, a specific distribution can be selected by following the package name with a slash and the version of the distribution or the Archive name ("stable", "testing", "unstable").

Both of the version selection mechanisms can downgrade packages and must be used with care. You don't want to manually remove a package that another installed package is dependent on.

If no package matches the given expression and the expression contains one of '.', '?' or '*' then it is assumed to be a POSIX-style regular expression, and it is applied to all package names in the database. Any matches are then installed (or removed). (Note that matching is done by substring; so 'lo.*' matches 'how-lo' and also 'lowest'. If this is undesired, anchor the regular expression with a '^' or '$' character, or create a more specific regular expression.

remove

identical to install except that packages are removed instead of installed. Note that removing a package leaves its configuration files on the system. If a plus sign is appended to the package name (with no intervening space), the identified package will be installed instead of removed.

purge

identical to remove except that packages are removed and purged (any configuration files are also deleted).

source

causes apt-get to fetch source packages. APT will examine the available packages to decide which source package to fetch. It will then find and download into the current directory the newest available version of that source package while respecting the default release, as set with the option APT::Default-Release, the -t option or per package with the pkg/release syntax.

Source packages are tracked separately from binary packages via deb-src lines in the sources.list file.

If the --compile option is specified then the package will be compiled to a binary .deb using dpkg-buildpackage for the architecture as defined by the --host-architecture option. If --download-only is specified then the source package will not be unpacked.

A specific source version can be retrieved by postfixing the source name with an equals and then the version to fetch, similar to the mechanism used for the package files. This enables exact matching of the source package name and version, implicitly enabling the APT::Get::Only-Source option.

Note that source packages are not installed and tracked in the dpkg database like binary packages; they are downloaded to the current directory, like source tarballs.

build-dep

causes apt-get to install/remove packages in an attempt to satisfy the build dependencies for a source package. By default, the dependencies are satisfied to build the package natively. If desired a host architecture can be specified with the --host-architecture option instead.

check

a diagnostic tool; it updates the package cache and checks for broken dependencies.

download

downloads the given binary package into the current directory.

clean

clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. It removes everything but the lock file from /var/cache/apt/archives/ and /var/cache/apt/archives/partial/. When APT is used as a dselect method, clean is run automatically. If you don't use dselect you will likely want to run apt-get clean from time to time to free up disk space.

autoclean

Like cleanautoclean clears out the local repository of retrieved package files. The difference is that it only removes package files that can no longer be downloaded, since they are largely useless. This allows a cache to be maintained over a long period without it growing out of control. The configuration option APT::Clean-Installed will prevent installed packages from being erased if it is set to off.

autoremove

autoremove is used to remove packages that were automatically installed to satisfy dependencies for other packages and are now no longer needed.

changelog

downloads a package changelog and displays it through sensible-pager. The server name and base directory is defined in the APT::Changelogs::Server variable. By default, it displays the changelog for the version that is installed. However, you can specify the same options as for the install command.

Options

All command line options may be set using the configuration file; the descriptions indicate the configuration option to set. For boolean options you can override the config file by using something like -f-,--no-f, or -f=no.

--no-install-recommends

Do not consider recommended packages as a dependency for installing.

Configuration Item: APT::Install-Recommends.

--install-suggests

Consider suggested packages as a dependency for installing.

Configuration Item: APT::Install-Suggests.

-d--download-only

Download only; package files are only retrieved, not unpacked or installed.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download-Only.

-f--fix-broken

Fix; attempt to correct a system with broken dependencies in place. This option, when used with install/remove, can omit any packages to permit APT to deduce a likely solution. If packages are specified, these have to completely correct the problem. The option is sometimes necessary when running APT for the first time; APT itself does not allow broken package dependencies to exist on a system. It is possible that a system's dependency structure can be so corrupt as to require manual intervention (which usually means using dselect or dpkg --remove to eliminate some of the offending packages). Use of this option together with -m may produce an error in some situations.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Fix-Broken.

-m--ignore-missing,
--fix-missing

Ignore missing packages; if packages cannot be retrieved or fail the integrity check after retrieval (corrupted package files), hold back those packages and handle the result. Use of this option together with -f may produce an error in some situations. If a package is selected for installation (particularly if it is mentioned on the command line) and it could not be downloaded then it will be silently held back.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Fix-Missing.

--no-download

Disables downloading of packages. This is best used with --ignore-missing to force APT to use only the .debs it has already downloaded.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Download.

-q--quiet

Quiet; produces output suitable for logging, omitting progress indicators. More q's will produce more quiet up to a maximum of 2. You can also use -q=# to set the quiet level, overriding the configuration file. Note that quiet level 2 implies -y; you should never use -qq without a no-action modifier such as -d--print-uris or -s as APT may decide to do something you did not expect.

Configuration Item: quiet.

-s--simulate,
--just-print--dry-run,
--recon--no-act

No action; perform a simulation of events that would occur but do not actually change the system.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Simulate.

Simulated runs performed as a user will automatically deactivate locking (Debug::NoLocking), and if the option APT::Get::Show-User-Simulation-Note is set (as it is by default) a notice will also be displayed indicating that this is only a simulation. Runs performed as root do not trigger either NoLocking or the notice; superusers should know what they are doing without further warnings from apt-get.

Simulated runs print out a series of lines, each representing a dpkg operation: configure (Conf), remove (Remv) or unpack (Inst). Square brackets indicate broken packages, and empty square brackets indicate breaks that are of no consequence, which is very rare.

-y--yes--assume-yes

Automatic yes to prompts; assume "yes" as answer to all prompts and run non-interactively. If an undesirable situation, such as changing a held package, trying to install a unauthenticated package or removing an essential package occurs then apt-get will abort.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-Yes.

--assume-no

Automatic "no" to all prompts.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Assume-No.

-u--show-upgraded

Show upgraded packages; print out a list of all packages that are to be upgraded.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Upgraded.

-V--verbose-versions

Show full versions for upgraded and installed packages.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Show-Versions.

-a--host-architecture

This option controls the architecture packages are built for by apt-get source --compile and how cross-build dependencies are satisfied. By default, it is not set which means that the host architecture is the same as the build architecture (which is defined by APT::Architecture).

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Host-Architecture.

-b--compile--build

Compile source packages after downloading them.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Compile.

--ignore-hold

Ignore package holds; this causes apt-get to ignore a hold placed on a package. This may be useful in conjunction with dist-upgrade to override a large number of undesired holds.

Configuration Item: APT::Ignore-Hold.

--no-upgrade

Do not upgrade packages; when used in conjunction with install, no-upgrade will prevent packages on the command line from being upgraded if they are already installed.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Upgrade.

--only-upgrade

Do not install new packages; when used in conjunction with installonly-upgrade will install upgrades for already installed packages only and ignore requests to install new packages.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Only-Upgrade.

--force-yes

Force yes; this is a dangerous option that will cause apt to continue without prompting if it is doing something potentially harmful. It should not be used except in very special situations. Using force-yes can potentially destroy your system!

Configuration Item: APT::Get::force-yes.

--print-uris

Instead of fetching the files to install, their URIs are printed. Each URI will have the path, the destination file name, the size and the expected MD5 hash. Note that the file name to write to will not always match the file name on the remote site! This also works with the source and update commands. When used with the update command the MD5 and size are not included, and it is up to the user to decompress any compressed files.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Print-URIs.

--purge

Use purge instead of remove for anything that would be removed. An asterisk ("*") will be displayed next to packages that are scheduled to be purged. remove --purge is equivalent to the purge command.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Purge.

--reinstall

reinstall packages that are already installed and at the newest version.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::ReInstall.

--list-cleanup

This option is on by default; use --no-list-cleanup to turn it off. When it is on, apt-get will automatically manage the contents of /var/lib/apt/lists to ensure that obsolete files are erased. The only reason to turn it off is if you frequently change your sources list.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::List-Cleanup.

-t--target-release,
--default-release

This option controls the default input to the policy engine; it creates a default pin at priority 990 using the specified release string. This overrides the general settings in /etc/apt/preferences. Specifically pinned packages are not affected by the value of this option. In short, this option lets you have control over which distribution packages will be retrieved. Some common examples might be -t '2.1*'-t unstable or -t sid.

Configuration Item: APT::Default-Release.

--trivial-only

Only perform operations that are 'trivial'. Logically this can be considered related to --assume-yes; where --assume-yes will answer yes to any prompt, --trivial-only will answer no.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Trivial-Only.

--no-remove

If any packages are to be removed apt-get immediately aborts without prompting.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Remove.

--auto-remove

If the command is either install or remove, then this option acts like running the autoremove command, removing unused dependency packages.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::AutomaticRemove.

--only-source

Only has meaning for the source and build-dep commands. Indicates that the given source names are not to be mapped through the binary table. This means that if this option is specified, these commands will only accept source package names as arguments, rather than accepting binary package names and looking up the corresponding source package.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Only-Source.

--diff-only--dsc-only,
--tar-only

Download only the diff, dsc, or tar file of a source archive.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Diff-OnlyAPT::Get::Dsc-Only, and APT::Get::Tar-Only.

--arch-only

Only process architecture-dependent build-dependencies.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::Arch-Only.

--allow-unauthenticated

Ignore if packages can't be authenticated and don't prompt about it. This is useful for tools like pbuilder.

Configuration Item: APT::Get::AllowUnauthenticated.

-h--help

Show a short usage summary.

-v--version

Show the program version.

-c--config-file

Configuration File; Specify a configuration file to use. The program will read the default configuration file and then this configuration file. If configuration settings need to be set before the default configuration files are parsed specify a file with the APT_CONFIG environment variable. See apt.conf for syntax information.

-o--option

Set a Configuration Option; This will set an arbitrary configuration option. The syntax is -o Foo::Bar=bar-o and --option can be used multiple times to set different options.

Files

/etc/apt/sources.list

Locations of where to fetch packages.

Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::SourceList.

/etc/apt/sources.list.d/

File fragments for locations of where to fetch packages.

Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::SourceParts.

/etc/apt/apt.conf

APT configuration file.

Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Main.

/etc/apt/apt.conf.d/

APT configuration file fragments.

Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Parts.

/etc/apt/preferences

Version preferences file. This is where you would specify "pinning", i.e. a preference to get certain packages from a separate source or from a different version of a distribution.

Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::Preferences.

/etc/apt/preferences.d/

File fragments for the version preferences.

Configuration Item: Dir::Etc::PreferencesParts.

/var/cache/apt/archives/

Storage area for retrieved package files.

Configuration Item: Dir::Cache::Archives.

/var/cache/apt/archives/partial/

Storage area for package files in transit.

Configuration Item: Dir::Cache::Archives (partial will be implicitly appended)

/var/lib/apt/lists/

Storage area for state information for each package resource specified in sources.list.

Configuration Item: Dir::State::Lists.

/var/lib/apt/lists/partial/

Storage area for state information in transit.

Configuration Item: Dir::State::Lists (partial will be implicitly appended)

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apt-get 例子

注意

许多(如果不是大多数)apt-get操作需要对APT锁定文件的写访问权,这需要管理员 权限 -因此,此处列出的大多数命令都以sudo为前缀,并且需要您的密码。

sudo apt-get install libc6

安装libc6,它包含嵌入式GNU C库的共享库。

sudo apt-get remove chromium

删除铬,Chromium的网页浏览器软件包。

sudo apt-get clean

清理下载的软件包文件的本地存储库,清除磁盘空间。

apt-get download ruby

将名为ruby的软件包的存档文件下载到当前目录中。该文件将具有.deb文件扩展名(在这种情况下,ruby_ X ,X ,X _all.deb)。然后,您可以使用dpkg --install手动安装该软件包。

Note

Many (if not most) apt-get operations require write access to the the APT lock file, which requires administrator privileges — so most commands listed here are prefixed with sudo, and require your password.

sudo apt-get install libc6

Install libc6, which comprises the shared libraries of the embedded GNUC library.

sudo apt-get remove chromium

Remove chromium, the Chromium web browser package.

sudo apt-get clean

Clean the local repository of downloaded package files, clearing disk space.

apt-get download ruby

Download the archive file for the package named ruby into the current directory. The file will have the .deb extension (in this case, ruby_x.x.x_all.deb). You could then install the package manually with dpkg --install.

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其他命令行

apt-cache | ar | arch | arp | as | a2p | aspell | ac | at | awk | a2p | apropos | alias | agrep | addgroup |

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